Hellenistic Economies. At Piraeus (the main port of Athens), this tax was set initially at 1% or higher. This was due to healthy standards of living and an increase of medical inventions. Liturgies could consist of, for instance, the maintenance of a trireme, a chorus during a theatre festival, or a gymnasium. The heights to which the Greeks brought the art of ceramics is, therefore, due entirely to their artistic sensibilities and not to technical ingenuity. Nevertheless, the issuing authority, usually a government, was clear as the designs or “types” of the coins expressed an image symbolic of the issuing authority and were often augmented by a “legend” of letters that spelled out an abbreviation of the issuing authority’s name. Thus, the papyri include information about such things as taxes, government-controlled lands and labor, and the unique numismatic policies of the Ptolemies. PLAY. Suddenly disappeared and archeologists are unsure why. The Greeks prospered for years. On the other hand, Athens did not tax its citizens directly except in cases of state emergencies (eisphorai) and in requiring the wealthiest citizens to perform public services (liturgies). It is first necessary to distinguish between the public and private sectors of the economy. Of course, one must be careful to account for genre and audience in addition to the personal perspective of the author when using such sources for information about the economy. The former was used in building the Parthenon and the other structures of the Athenian acropolis while the latter was often used for the most famous ancient Greek free-standing and relief sculptures. "The Hellenistic economy: indirect intervention by the state." Finley’s model holds most true for the Archaic period (c. 776-480 B.C.) Poems and dramas also contain evidence concerning the ancient Greek economy. The rise and decline of population in ancient Greece: From 800 B.C. Humphreys, S.C. “Economy and Society in Classical Athens.” Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa 39 (1970):1-26. Ancient Rome contributed greatly to the development of law, war, art, literature, architecture, technology and language in the Western world, and its history continues to have a major influence on the world today. The helots of Sparta were agricultural serfs, indigenous peoples conquered by the Spartans and forced to work their former lands for their Spartan overlords. The Hellenistic Age from the Battle of Ipsos to the Death of Kleopatra VII. Historical methods were also a factor in the debate. The wars with the North African city of Carthage (known as the Punic Wars, 264-146 BCE) consolidated Rome's power and helped the city grow in wealth and prestige.Rome and Carthage were rivals in trade in the Western … So it is a dubious matter to say that the manumission of slaves is a testament to the humanity of ancient Greek slavery. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. Grant, M. in what are called the Archaic (776-480), Classical (480-323), and Hellenistic (323-30) periods.2 During this time, Greek civilization was very different from our own in a variety of ways. Ancient Greece never really declined. Kurke, L. The Traffic in Praise: Pindar and the Poetics of Social Economy. Explores rural production and exchange within political and religious contexts. Local trade goods could be probably transported over short distances on land. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988. The vase types indicate the goods they contained, such as olive oil, wine, or grain. Agriculture was carried out primarily on small family farms, though the Homeric epics indicate that there were also some larger estates controlled by the elite and worked with the help of free landless thetes whose labor would be needed especially at harvest time. , spiritual and political institutions, including Greeks and 4th centuries BC, beginning with coastal cities! 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